Chickens Do Have Strong Memories? | Interesting Facts

It is an interesting fact that chickens do have strong memories. Chickens might even have better memories as compared to most humans. Did you know that chickens have the ability to remember the faces of their own kind of species?

According to a certain scientific study, a chicken can distinguish about 100 faces of their kind. To me, all chickens have similar faces but only different in the color of their feathers. I think that through the colors of their feathers, it is the only possible way for us humans to distinguish them apart from one another.

As an average person with an average human memory, it would be impossible for me to distinguish 100 chicken-faces. Maybe I can do 5 to 10 chickens provided that they have unique feathers allowing me to differentiate them apart. But in most cases, chickens tends to look just like just the same.

When I was still studying back in college, I memorize things through the traditional method of “repetition”. I just keep on repeating the words, numbers or formulas until I can repeat the exact terms without looking back at my notes. At least these things do have meanings which makes it a lot much easier to memorize. But when it comes to faces especially that of the chickens, I find it difficult.

In my own opinion, chickens probably have “photographic memory”. This is a type of memory that only few people have it. They are able to store memories into their mind clearly as a photograph. It is actually more like a video-camera. So if you have it, you are one extremely lucky individual.

Do You Own a Chicken Farm?

If you own a chicken farm and you are the one who constantly feed them every day then, you will notice that your chickens have grown accustomed to you. They know you through your face which is the reason why they approach you without hesitation.

I actually do have a friend who owns several unique breed of chickens as pets. One day, he left them under the care of his family for 2 years. When he came back home, he was surprised that his chickens still do remember him. This means that the memories stored within their brains aren’t just short-term but long-term which is completely amazing.

Free Chicken versus Caged Chicken

Between a chicken who is left to roam around the environment and a caged chicken, who has a better memory and intelligence? To answer this question, there was actually a scientific study held by the Norwegian University of Life Sciences about it.

To save you from the boring part, I won’t be discussing how the scientists performed their experiments. If you are an animal lover then rest assured that no harm were done to the chickens.

The scientists who performed the experiment came up into a conclusion that chickens who are given the freedom to roam around gave a much impressive result as the caged chickens. Why? It’s because chickens with freedom are more exposed to a complex environment. They have already encountered various challenges which has a great contribution into their brain activity.

Moreover, chicken or egg consumption is beneficial for your memory. You might be surprised to know that chicken or egg is rich in “choline” which helps in protecting your brain from the effect of aging. Unfortunately, chickens now a days are easily targeted by a viral infection which is more commonly known as bird flu. So before you attempt to eat a chicken, make sure that there isn’t any reports about bird flu in your area.
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Bird Flu Outbreak – Philippines 2017

Philippines is now suffering from a bird flu outbreak so it is best to avoid eating chickens so as their eggs. One of the latest news reports, the bird flu hits the large chicken farm in San Luis, Pampanga killing about 37,000 chickens.

This tragic outbreak is actually the first case ever reported in the country. So to all chicken lovers out there, be warned not to eat chicken or possible disease might be transmitted. Anyway, there were samples of confirmatory tests that were sent to Australia which was to check if the farm workers including the residents of San Luis if they had acquired some signs of illness. Fortunately, the result was negative but this doesn’t meant that it’s still safe for consumption. It’s better to be safe than sorry, thus its best to stay away from chickens.

Right now, the government has implemented a strict quarantine procedures so that chickens from the country won’t be able to circulate including importation abroad. All those chickens and eggs that were distributed to various local sellers such as grocery stores were taken back or surrendered. Then, they were all burned to prevent the bird flu from spreading.

I really love “Pinik-pikan” and boiled eggs. But for health safety reason, people like me needs to constrain yourself for a while. Anyway, there are other meats as an alternative such as beef and pork. But, if you are really addicted to the taste or flavor of the chicken then I heard that edible exotic meats such as snake, farm rats and frogs do have very similar taste. If you want to eat such kind of exotic food, make sure that the food is properly prepared.

Nobody really knows how long will this bird flu will last. It may really take some time because this is the first time that Philippines encounter such plague. But since Philippines has many good neighboring countries who are willing to help, I am sure that a vaccine will be created to cure or stop the infestation.

Moreover, if you’re here in the Philippines and regardless of who you are (Filipino, Foreigner or tourist), please spread the message. Did you know that by spreading these words, you are like Batman or Superman? (Okay, I agree that “you are like a hero” is the better term). By helping spread this issue, you are actually saving people’s lives who doesn’t know or unaware about this danger and this I believe is considered a heroic act. But unlike Batman or Superman, you don’t have to go jumping or flying around.

God bless and stay safe.

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Large Frog Found in Vigan Ilocos Sur

A photo of a large edible frog became viral when it was posted by Shakespear Yanto Diaz on his FaceBook (here is the link). Examining the photo if it’s edited or genuine, I can say that it is authentic.

The frog was found by Diaz somewhere in the region of Vigan Ilocos Sur, probably in their own backyard or farm land. He is actually yet to reveal where he exactly found it. If he does, I am pretty sure that many will come to visit the area and hunt these large specie of frogs. Thus, I hope that he will keep the location to himself.

Since the frog is of edible kind, many are suggesting Diaz to cook it. But currently, he is confining it inside a cage.

In my own personal opinion, I think many Filipino scientist will take interest in learning more about this large frog. Common frogs in the Philippines are actually small and they do not grow such gigantic size.

What if this large frog caught by Diaz is an extremely rare species of frogs? And, what if it is the last one of its kind that is surviving on this current date?

I actually made a research about the largest kind of frogs on the record today and they are known as the “Goliath Frog” (Conraua goliath). They can grow to a large size of up to 3 feet long and can weigh much as a newborn baby (around 3.2 kg). These giant frogs inhabit the coastal forest of Western Africa where they eat small insects, frogs and crabs. And the most interesting fact about them is that, they can reach up to 15 years of life span.

Unfortunately, goliath frogs are now considered an endangered species. These kind of frogs are actually considered as delicacy. And, they are also being collected by zoos so as private individuals to own them as pets. Sadly, these frogs are unable to survive or breed well in captivity. But, the greatest cause of their declining population are due to the loss of their habitat. People have been logging or clearing the forest for agricultural land and construction of large dams which threatened their breeding habitat.

Going back to the large frog found by Diaz in the Philippines, it is indeed strange that this could be the first record of such giant frog ever found in the Philippine history. Many individuals actually cannot believe it where they simply dismiss it as a hoax. Others say that it is a mystical creature or “Engkanto”.

Moreover, Diaz is open to anyone who would like to visit his place and check the large frog he caught. Simply contact him on his FaceBook account and let’s hope that he didn’t slaughtered it yet.
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How Do Acid Rain Form?

The major reason why acid rains forms are due to our polluted environment caused by burning coals, oils and others materials that produces excessive form of smoke. We have an endless list of sources for such pollutions that can cause a chemical reaction to produce acid rains. Common chemical compounds are the combination of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

Acid rains is also the current major problem for the loss of huge number of fishes in many lakes around the world. Based on the Paleonecological research that has been conducted, it has been found out that more lakes are becoming acidic which are inappropriate for aquatic animals to live in. In a few more years to come, it is for sure that the prices of fishes on the market will greatly increase.

Who are to be blamed?

We are to be blamed for the occurrences of acid rains. With the fast evolving pace of our technology, there are plenty of competing companies for providing the best technological product of our time. However, most people are not aware that to mass-produce an item it requires power plants and industrial facilities which are the major contributors of air pollution.

Air Pollution

Cars or any other form of transportation that requires gas or oil to run are also major contributors to air pollution. With the huge number of vehicles running around the world, you can imagine how much pollution will be accumulated into the atmosphere.

Burning coals and woods also contributes as a major factor of air pollution. Almost every causes of pollution are contributed by us humans. Thus, prevention can only be done by the one responsible.

Dangers of Acid Rain into our Environment

Since we created acid rain out from carelessly polluting our environment, we are to reap the effect in various forms of risk and dangers. Here are the following major effects of acid rain into our environment:

Aquatic Creatures

It has already been mentioned above that all aquatic creatures are not capable of living under acidic water. The acid content from the water can clog the fish's gills which alter the blood chemistry leading into death. If this continues until to the point that almost every lakes or bodies of water around the world has been contaminated with acid then expect that there will be no fishes to be serve on your dining table.

Our source of water-supply will also be affected. Soon you might not be aware that you are drinking a cup of water contaminated with the deadly acid contents.

Forest Dies

In some countries that often experience acid rains, the forest are now badly damaged. Researchers has found out that acid precipitation drains the nutrients out from the soil. As a result, most trees will either decreased in growth or simply wither and dies .


With the acidic contents of the acid rain, it is capable of damaging almost any kind of materials. Simply think of every objects that are being exposed outside under the acid rain.

Dangers to Us

This is the most crucial part that an acid rain can bring into our healthy life. If you are exposed under an unexpected acid rain event then you have a very serious health condition. A high concentration of sulfate and nitrate substance might had entered your cardiovascular and respiratory system which can lead into various forms of diseases or even death.

Some fishes that are caught can be contaminated with the acidic content of the acid rain. Most likely, these contents are mercury and cadmium absorbed by the acid from various surrounding such as soil deposits. These chemical substance tends to accumulated inside the body tissues of the fish or any other aquatic animals. Thus, this makes them toxic when eaten by other animals or humans.

Water supplies particularly old pipes can be easily penetrated by the powerful acidic content of the acid rain. Drinking a cup of water contaminated with acid rain posses the most serious threat than any of those that has already been mentioned above.

If the next future generation of our time will ask us, 'How does acid rain form?'. Will you be proud enough to say the we did created this damaging force of nature?
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Paypal Chargeback - Protection Against Fraud

Most online merchants are now using Paypal as one of their preferred type of online payments. The reason why they choose Paypal is due to its various features that are helpful enough for both the merchant and their customers. Some of these features is that Paypal has the flexibility to make transactions via your Account Balance, Credit Cards and Bank Accounts.

According to Paypal, they now have a total of 128 million active accounts in 193 markets with 25 different currencies around the world. This number are currently growing since Paypal is now commonly recognized by huge markets making it the most trusted e-currency payment processor technology of our time.

Unfortunately, regardless of Paypal's reputation in the world of online market - it still do have flaws that are currently being abused by some professional scammers. And the most common issue these days is the 'Chargeback'.

What is a chargeback and how do they abuse it?

A chargeback occurs when a payment that has been made was reversed by Paypal due to the complaint issued by the sender. There can only be two main reason for a chargeback. First reason is, 'Did not received goods'. This means that the seller has failed to send the product to the buyer. Fraud occurs when the buyer had received the goods but yet claimed that he or she didn't received the product. If the seller has failed to provide enough evidence of the delivery of the product then the payment he had received will be reversed.

Second reason is, 'Unauthorized Payment'. This means that the Paypal account owner was not aware about the transaction has been made. Most of this type of issues are encountered from payments that came from stolen Credit Cards. As for the downside, payers can file a claim into their Credit Card company that they did not authorized the payment even they did. This will cause Paypal to reverse the payment.

There's actually a third issue that a payment can be chargeback. This is when you traded an unverified Paypal account that had reached its limit. When you do, there are chances that all payments that has been made by that limited account are to be refunded back into his or her account.

Now, how do we protect our account against fraudulent chargeback?

We can prevent fraudulent chargeback by gathering proof or evidences that you have delivered your product. This is done by letting your buyer confirm his information such as Name, Address and Telephone Number. Calling your customer and recording your conversation is also a strong evidence that you can provide in case of a chargeback.

Dealing with 'Did not received goods' and 'Unauthorized Chargeback'

'Did not received goods' is the easiest type of chargeback that can be solved and won provided that you have gathered enough evidences. If your product is a virtual good then simply letting Paypal know that it's an intangible product gives you the edge of winning the dispute. You have to know that Paypal's protection program only covers tangible type of products.

The type of chargeback that you don't want to received is 'Unauthorized Chargeback'. When you have been issued by Paypal an unauthorized chargeback then sad to say that this type of issue are the hardest to deal with. Some may just consider it a loss that they end up refunding the payment.

Unauthorized Paypal Chargeback

Receiving unauthorized chargeback is the worst type of payment that will be put on-hold in your account. This kind of chargeback are the hardest issues to deal with and your chances of winning is very slim. Some merchants immediately dismiss this issue once encountered on their account. This is for them to avoid headache and to save their precious time rather than telling their valid reasons to Paypal that will get them nowhere.

Unauthorized Paypal chargeback occurs when the sender of the money called their credit card company or bank that they did not authorized the payment. They will give reasons that somebody stole their credit card or somebody got an access into their bank account. The credit card company or bank will then reverse the payment from Paypal and Paypal will do the same on your account. Thus, the payment that has been sent will be deducted from your account.

Paypal will give you a certain period of time to provide your evidence and it must be good enough to prove that you have dealt with the real owner of the sender's account. We will cover on this post on how you can obtain a solid evidence as proofs. If you couldn't provide such a solid evidence then you might just want to dismiss the issue by refunding the payment.

Provided that you had given a strong evidence proving that the sender was actually pretending that somebody had stolen his account, the money will be refunded back into your account if the sender's Paypal account does have enough Paypal Balance on his account to cover the amount. If the sender's balance is zero then he will incur a negative balance on his account. However, the money he owes you will not yet be refunded until he places or deposit a fund into his Paypal Balance.

If the sender thinks that he can get away with his actions by simply creating another Paypal account then he's wrong. Every credit card account number are being recorded into Paypal's database and it can only be used once per account. Thus, he wouldn't be able to add his credit card on his newly created Paypal account unless he is to use another different credit card number.

How do we prevent Unauthorized Chargeback?

To avoid unauthorized chargeback, you will need to ask some of your customer's personal information. Most of them wouldn't like providing their personal info online but its currently the only possible means of protecting your business against unauthorized chargeback. It's actually better to have a few legitimate customers that will let you earn $100 in one week rather than to have a risky profit of $500 a week with high chances of getting chargebacked.

Confirming your Customer's Physical Address

You can confirm your buyer's physical address by asking him to send you an invoice. He can do it by going into the 'Request Money' tab then 'Create an Invoice'. You should ask him that he should include his address and phone number on the Invoice Form. If he makes a lot of excuses such as errors are occurring and etc... then abort the trade. Most likely, he has a stolen Paypal account.

The good thing about asking for an invoice is that you don't have to accept the payment as a seller. But the point is, you need to confirm your buyer's address and phone number which can be done by clicking on the 'Details' from the payment receipt sent by Paypal. If your customer didn't include his own address and phone number then you can ask him again for the second time. Failure to send you the required information means that you are dealing with a stolen Paypal account. Thus, call off the trade since you are just wasting your time.

If you managed to obtain your customer's phone number, call him to verify that you are currently trading him online. Otherwise, inform him that someone had access into his Paypal account and he needs to call Paypal to block his account.

Finally, you have to ask an email as a final verification from your buyer. Make sure that he is to use his Paypal email account and not any other random email account. On the message, your customer should have a statement which include his complete name and the amount of goods that he is about to purchase.

If in any case that your customer filed an unauthorized chargeback, you can provide all the evidences above and your chances will be at a hundred-percent winning rate.

Capturing Screenshots for Evidence

It is highly advised that you are to take every possible type of evidence that you can have when dealing with a certain transaction on Paypal. The reason is that you will be needing such evidences in case that you are to open a dispute or your account has been filed a dispute from your previous transactions.

Let's say for example that you are the seller and you are selling a virtual product. To be more specific on our example, you are selling a virtual in-game cash.

After discussing the amount of items willing to be bought by your buyer, you can now start with the payment procedure. Always ask your buyer to include on the note a statement that they are purchasing virtual or in-tangible type of goods. Below is an example of the statement:

"This is my payment for the virtual goods that I already received wherein any attempts of filing a chargeback will be considered as fraud."

Some buyers will disagree on the statement above because they haven't actually received their goods yet. Thus, the short statement below can also be used:

"Payment for Virtual Goods."

Simply adding 'Virtual or Digital' goods on the note is already good enough as proof for Paypal.

Screenshots of the Items Delivered

Taking a screenshots as proof for the delivery of the items purchased are the most important part of evidence that you need you have. Still on our example above, login on the game and trade with your customer's in-game account. When trading between two parties has been established, make sure that the items are shown on the trading table before you capture a screenshot.

On the image shown below, it clearly shows that the trade composes of 27 Million worth of coins, 1 Fishing bait and 1 Thread.

RS Screenshot

Accept the trade and you have to take another screenshot which confirms on the game that the trade has been completed. Below is the completed trade confirmation.

Screenshot Confirmation

Finalizing your Screenshots

On your Paypal account, click on the details on the payment that you have just recently received from your customer. This will show some of your customer's information which includes the note, amount of payment, fees and other details about the transaction. You will have to take a screenshot of this page as well.

If you made contact with your buyer from an IM (Internet Messaging) services such as Skype, Yahoo Messenger and etc... You may also have to take a screenshot on all of your conversation from the start to the end. Take note that a conversation simply copied in the form of 'text' is not recognized as evidence.

How do you exactly take a Screenshot?

On your keyboard, look for the key that says 'Print Screen'. But before you do that, open any image editing tools that you have on your PC. For windows users, you can just simply use 'Paint'.

Once you hit the Print Screen button, this will automatically capture the entire screen shown on your monitor. Thus, it requires a few editing on the image if there are some info that you do not want to be shown.

To paste the captured image, simply press 'CTRL + V' on your keyboard at the same time. The long method is to click on the 'Edit' tab on your image editing tool then choose the option 'Paste'.

Recorded Videos As Solid Proof

When it comes to evidences, recorded videos are more recognized as legitimate and solid proofs as compared to image screenshots. The reason is that, images can be easily edited with powerful image-editing tools such as the Adobe Photoshop. Editing simply takes a few and easy simple steps that almost anyone can actually do it.

Videos are a lot much harder to be edited and the edits can be easily spotted. Thus for larger amount of Paypal transactions, it is highly advised to capture the whole transaction process on a video recording tool.

The only problem presenting your evidence in the form of a video is that all personal information captured on your screen can also be viewed by the Moderator. For this reason, you can upload your video on YouTube and make it private then share the link to Paypal/Moderator.

Newly released video-recording tools does have the functionality to block or censor a certain part on your video. You can use this feature if you wish to present your evidence out on the public. However, videos without any edits of any kind are a lot more recognized as a solid proof of evidence.
Recommended Free Video Recording Software

Here's a list of free video recording software that you might want to check:


First on the list is the 'CamStudio'. You can download the tool at which is completely free to use for both personal or commercial projects. One of its best feature is its functionality to capture audio activity and save your files in AVI format. On this type of format, the tool has a built-in SWF file converter to turn those AVI files into a bandwidth-friendly Streaming Flash Videos (SWF).


Second on our list is Ezvid which is another video-maker tool which are free to use. It's best feature is its functionality that allows you to split your recordings and add text on them. The only downside of this tool is that there is no possible way to export the video that you have recorded on your PC. However, the tool has a function that allows you to upload your video on YouTube.

Blueberry FlashBack Express Recorder

This is a two-in-one video-recording tool since it has the functionality to capture video recording from your webcam and desktop at the same time. If you just simply want to capture the screen from your desktop then disable your webcam then skip the video-editor program. Otherwise, you might want to re-position and re-size your webcam box before exporting it into the output file. AVI is the output file format.


Here comes another interesting video-recording tool where it features an interesting way to share your recording without installing an application on your PC. All what you need to have is to install the required Java version on your computer.

Screenr allows you to record a video with a maximum time-duration of 5 minutes. Your videos are automatically saved on your account and you can share it to your friends via links. Exporting can also be done wherein you can export your video in MP4 file format and upload it on YouTube.

Rylstim Screen Recorder

For those people who doesn't want to configure anything on the settings then you might want to use Rylstim. This is a very simple and basic recording tool wherein you can immediately start capturing videos on your screen by hitting the 'Start Record' button.

The only available options on this simple tool is whether you want your left or right mouse click buttons to be shown on your videos. Enabling this function will cause a red ripple for left click and green ripple for right click on your videos. Take note that these mouse effects are only visible when viewing your recordings.

More of these video-recording tools are being released online competing for the best features to offer into their users. Regardless of what tool you are currently using, it is important that you are able to capture a good quality of video particularly for your Paypal transaction. Presenting good quality of video as evidence gives you the edge of winning Paypal Chargeback issues.

Why Sending Your Payments As Gift Is Bad?

The good positive side of sending your payment as gift is that you won't get deducted from the transaction fee. Thus, most small-time merchants would prefer accepting payments via gift method not knowing that it has a very bad effect when issues arise between sender and the receiver.

To explain gift payments, this is a type of payment with the sole purpose of sending money to whom you trust such as your family and friends. It has never been meant to be used for paying products.

Paypal actually discourages any merchant from accepting gift payments that when found out, the penalty is a direct ban on their account. This often occurs when the merchant suddenly encountered a customer that was not satisfied with their services or products. At some point, some of these customer will directly contact Paypal instead of settling the issue first with the merchant.

Once that Paypal has been informed, they will investigate the merchant's account and when it has been found out that owner has been using it to accept payment via gift then this will get their account banned.

For the senders, you need to be aware that sending your money via gift-payment method does not allow you to open or file a dispute. This means that you won't get refunded incase that something went wrong on your trades. Thus, you really have to make sure that you trust the person whom you are sending your payment when you prefer to pay via this method.

Reasons Why Send your Payment as Goods

Buyer's Protection

When you sent your money via gift then there is no way you can get your money back incase you dealt with a fraud. Its final and there's nothing else that you can do since it has been stated on Paypal's policy not to use this method when sending payment to someone whom you do not trust.

Sending your payment as goods allows you to get refunded because you can always file a dispute within 45 days starting from the date that you have sent your payment.

Better than Nothing

Merchants should also accept payments via goods. It's better to pay for those fees rather than avoiding it by accepting gift payments that could put your account at risk of getting banned. Anyway, you are using Paypal's services so they deserve a small amount of commission for every successful transaction done.

Buyer and Seller Accounts

Either you are the sender or receiver of the cash via gift, both accounts are at the risk of getting banned. This is because both accounts had broken Paypal rules and termination of account is the penalty.

For the sake of both parties, always use the correct form of payment method. If you are the merchant and your reason is to protect yourself from chargeback, please read the previous posts which explains you how to deal with them correctly. Paypal dispute are actually easy to be won.

Finally, avoid dealing with a merchant or seller that accepts gift as payment since most likely they are just fraud or scammers.

Here are the following summarized basic methods on how to gather evidences that you can use in case of a chargeback:

1. Take a Screen Shot

It is highly advised that you should take a screen shot of the entire transaction procedure with your customer. This includes your chat conversation, emails and other form of media-communication.

2. Capture a Video

If you are dealing a virtual product directly online with your customer, you can capture the whole transaction with a video recorder. This proof is a lot more recognized as stronger evidence than taking a screen shot as mentioned above.

3. Call your Customer

We all know that calling your customer might annoy them that they could even end up not buying your product. However, this is the strongest evidence that you can obtain by letting him confirm his information on the phone.

Finally, you have now known that your best protection against Paypal fraud chargeback starts by the time that you are going to deal with your customer.
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Guide on How to Properly Use Manual Hand Drill Tool

Some woodworkers prefer the old fashion way of drilling woods which is done through a manually operated tool called 'Hand Drill'. This is a very simple type of tool that allows you to perform drilling holes in which it requires exerting repeated physical-circular motion. Unlike the powered-drilling tools that are commonly used today, the use of manual hand drill tool do require skill in order to achieve the desired performance of drilling a hole.

It is important that you need to have proper control on the rotational speed of your manually operated hand drill. Other than the rotational speed is the pressure that needs to be applied.

Mechanical Operation of a Manual Hand Drill

A hand drill works by simply rotating the tool's 'cranking handle' which is the middle part of the tool. This will also turn the pinion gears on the main shaft which is connected into another shaft holding the drill bit. Note: (Always make sure that the drill bit is firmly-tightened into the shaft before using the tool.)

At the opposite end of the shaft is another handle which is held stationary as you rotate the chuck.

Manual Hand Drill

Operating a Hand Drill

If you are going to make a hole, the first step that you need to do is to find the appropriate size of drill-bit that is needed. Sizes are typically inscribe on the bit's shaft.

Considering that you have found the right size of drill-bit to be used, check first your hand drill if it's perfectly working well. Try rotating it to make sure that none of its gears got stuck.

A hand drill that has not been used for a long period of time often result with its gears stuck. To fix this, there are plenty of products that can loosen such gear-problem out in the market. Make sure to put some gear oil as well to ensure ease of rotating the crank-handle.

The next step is to insert the drill bit's shaft into the chuck then tighten it hard. Some hand drills does have special tool that can be used to firmly tighten the chuck.

Finally, you are now ready to drill a hole.

Proper Way of Drilling a Hole with your Hand Drill

To properly drill a hole with your manual hand drill, you will need to put a marker on the spot that needs to be holed. When it's done, gently put the drill bit's tip into your marker. Make sure that you are positioned in the correct angle at the same time.

A Press Attachment can be also used to guide you in drilling surfaces at different angle positions.

When you are perfectly sure of your marker and position, you may now start rotating the cranking-handle which causes the drill-bit to rotate. If you are using small sized drill-bit, you have to be careful not to apply enough pressure as it can be easily bent or broken. Serious injury occurs when a particle of the drill-bit accidentally hits your eye especially when you are not wearing eye-protection.

If you are drilling a hole on a hard object, it may take some time and it can be very stressful. Thus, you may need an assistance to help you with the task. Your partner can hold the top-handle while you rotate the cranking handle. Always make sure that you are rotating in the clockwise direction. Rotating it in the wrong direction won't let the drill-bit able to feed on its way in.

Using low-tech manual hand drill tool isn't actually easy as compared to the new high-powered drilling tools. Thus, if you want to quickly drill a hole with less effort then better use a power drill.
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How Does Lightning Form from the Sky?

Lightning do often occurs during stormy weather conditions. Countries under tropical regions often experience heavy rainfalls accompanied by lightning and thunderstorms.

But, how does lightning really form?

Before rain starts to fall, try and observe the behavior of the clouds. You will observe that a group of dark clouds will suddenly overlap the white clouds making your surrounding slightly dim. This will then be followed by some roaring loud thunder and flashes of lightning before the rain starts to fall.

To explain how lightning exactly occurs, those dark clouds are negatively charged or composed of highly charged electrons. Just like a magnet where its negative side is attracted to the positive side, the clouds with negative charges are attracted to the clouds with positive charges. Another instance is that negatives charges in the clouds can also be attracted with positive charges on the ground.

The most common and best understood form of lightning is known as the "Cloud-to-Ground" lightning. Due to its behavior where it often strikes right on the surface of the Earth, this had allowed scientists to conduct researches and studies about lightning. As a result, scientists are able to measure the power of lightning through voltage-measuring instruments. Other than the voltage, they were able to discover that this form of lightning occurs when positive charges from the ground attracts the negatively charged electrons from the clouds.

As a result, lightning occurs when both the positive and negative charges collide.

The second form of lightning that can also be observed from the sky is the "Cloud-to-Cloud" lightning. This is a form of lightning that occurs from the discharge of a negatively charged cloud into another positively charged cloud. There are two different type of occurrences when a cloud-to-cloud lightning occurs. First is known as the "inter-cloud lighting" where the discharge occurs between two separate clouds. Second is when the discharge occurs within one of the two clouds which is referred as "intra-cloud lightning".

A third form of lightning which has been recently discovered by the scientists is known as the "Dark Lightning". It is created by thunderstorm which produces a high form of energy-radiation. With the advancement of our technology, scientists can now observe on their sophisticated instruments the terrestrial-gamma rays that flashes out from the discharge of the thunderclouds. They even found out that dark lightning flashes at a faster speed than the normal type of lightning.

Beware Lighting Strike Can be Deadly

Most people think that once a certain person was hit by a lightning, he is surely dead. This is completely a wrong notion because basing from all previous incidents, the majority of people that has been struck by lightning have survive. They did survive but they had suffered long-lasting neurological damage. Thus, it is still very dangerous to be hit by a lightning even though upon knowing that you have high chances of survival.


Lightning is a very unpredictable force of nature that you will never know when it suddenly strikes you down. The best way to avoid getting hit by a lightning is simply to stay indoor during thunderstorm.
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